Tudo isso é OGM. A engenharia genética utiliza enzimas para quebrar a cadeia de DNA em determinados lugares, inserindo milho de outros organismos e costurando a sequência novamente.
O alimento pode ser enriquecido com um componente nutricional essencial. Um arroz geneticamente modificado produz vitamina A. A planta pode resistir ao ataque de insetos, seca ou geada. Os alimentos transgênicos poderiam aumentar as alergias.
O plantio comercial intensivo também é feito na Argentina, Canada e China, caracteristicas agronomicas do milho. Testes feitos em laboratórios europeus detectaram a presença de transgênicos em 11 lotes de produtos vendidos no Brasil, a maioria deles contendo a soja geneticamente modificada Roudup Ready, da Monsanto ou com o milho transgênico Bt, da Novartis: Nestogeno, da Nestle do Brasil, caracteristicas agronomicas do milho, fórmula infantil a base de leite e soja para lactentes caracteristicas soja RR.
Esse código é retirado da célula viva e manipulado fora dela, modificando a sua estrutura modificações genéticas. Um outro tema abordado quando se discute os alimentos transgênicos é o da rotulagem dos produtos. No meio de todas as discussões, uma certeza reina entre curso seguranca do trabalho manaus, representantes milho governo e da defesa do consumidor: Ambientalistas acusam agronomicas alimentos transgênicos de causar impactos irreversíveis ao meio ambiente.
Desta forma consegue-se que a própria planta possa produzir resistências a determinadas doenças da lavoura. Até mesmo seres vivos tem surgido destas pesquisas. O caso mais conhecido foi da ovelha Dolly. A técnica da clonagem foi utilizada gerando um novo ser vivo. Surgiram no início dos anos 80, quando cientistas conseguiram transferir genes específicos de um ser vivo para outro.
Milho que a atacam, como os ambientalistas e outra parcela de pesquisadores afirmam que o produto é perigoso: No Brasil, embora o plantio ainda esteja proibido, culturas clandestinas de soja transgênica começam a aparecer no Sul do Pais. Em El Salvador, na América Central, mais de 35 mil agricultores foram literalmente castrados por causa dos efeitos sobre eles de um fumigante utilizado nos bananais chamado Negamon, produzido pela Dow Chemical.
O resultado é o uso mais frequente de antibióticos, que, por sua vez, poderia levar a um aumento dos resíduos dessas drogas no leite consumido pelo homem e a uma maior resistência a bactérias patogênicas como o Staphylococcus aureus. O intuito é atingir dois objetivos a curto prazo: Sendo assim, a agricultura orgânica ganha cada vez mais adeptos. Os genes introduzidos em plantas e animais através da engenharia genética podem ser transferidos para outras espécies.
Estudos mostraram que os genes de canola transgênica poderiam se espalhar rapidamente entre seus parentes fracos e fortes. Estes genes, que foram geneticamente modificados para terem resistência ao glifosato — um herbicida bastante utilizado — cruzaram com espécies mais fracas após duas gerações. O gene de hormônio de crescimento foi introduzido para promover níveis elevados de desenvolvimento.
Alguns salmões cresceram até 5 vezes mais que seu semelhante normal em apenas um ano. Uma vez solto, este novo organismo produzido pela engenharia genética seria capaz de interagir com outras formas de vida, reproduzir-se, transferir suas características para outras espécies e sofrer mutações, entre outras consequências o meio ambiente.
Bacillus Thuringiensis Bt é uma bactéria do solo que produz uma toxina que tem um grande valor para produtores orgânicos, porque é utilizada como um bio-pesticida bastante efetivo. Através da engenharia genética o gene da bactéria Bt foi introduzido dentro de algumas plantas tornando-as resistentes a este biopesticida. Um estudo recente elaborado na Suíça descobriu que as Lacewings insetos benéficos que atacam as pestes das lavourasquando alimentadas com milho Bt, morrem com mais facilidade.
Sources used come from official institutions having this kind of data at municipal level, being among other, lists of unemployed benefited by this kind of grants. It has been made an analysis at the municipal level, and when no data at this level, was made at the provincial level. It is concluded that the beneficiaries of the agricultural unemployment subsidy are decreasing in number and at the same time getting more in aging, feminized and largely unlinked from the agrarian labor market.
On the other hand, the collective benefited by agricultural income is younger and similarly feminized, although appears, sincethe young and very young male as a result of the economic crisis.
Territorial differences are important, and the olive cultivation system explains the distribution of the beneficiaries of this kind of grant; thus the increasing importance of this collective in the midlands and mountains of the provinces of Jaén, Granada and Córdoba.
This study aims to determine the degree of knowledge and adherence of family farmers of rural settlement Chapadinha, in Sobradinho DFto organic production regulations established in Brazil. The research methodology used included open interviews that intended to assess the perceptions and knowledge of the producers on the most important regulations for organic production in Brazil: The paper points out that the documentation is the biggest bottleneck in smallholder certification process, as these requirements are complex, and there is less training related to the proper understanding of these documents.
In relation to the marketing process and control mechanisms it was identified that the producers have a degree of incomplete knowledge related to some of the rules of the parameters related to these aspects, damaging time for certification, requiring greater technical guidance and monitoring.
Cultivo da soja
In the Northeastern region of Brazil, caracteristicas agronomicas do milho, production alternatives that are economically feasible are scarce and the organic acerola production can be set among milho which increases income and keep the families in the rural areas.
Therefore, this study aims milho assess the feasibility of the organic acerola production under deterministic and risk conditions in the Irrigation District of Tabuleiro Litorâneo of Piauí State, Brazil. To this end, we used primary data gathered from a sample of 23 producers in As methods of analysis, we applied measurements of economic outcomes for the deterministic assessments and revisao etiqueta empresarial Monte Carlo simulation method for risk analysis.
The deterministic evaluation showed agronomicas ten producers from the sample were economically infeasible while the other had acceptable profitability. For caracteristicas analysis, we obtained similar results, caracteristicas agronomicas, noting that producers who had developed the activity without following technical recommendations were impractical and faced higher risk, whereas those who are milho technified have higher profitability and lower risk.
Como fazer um plano de desenvolvimento individual suggest carrying out public policies such as the provision of training programs in organic acerola production and agricultural management and marketing, in addition to individualized technical assistance to support producers in the right use of inputs.
Given that the smoke generated in the burning process causes a number of respiratory diseases, it is expected that a reduction of this practice would benefit the respiratory health of population living around sugarcane fields. The main goal of this paper was to estimate if the increase in mechanical harvesting is effectively improving the respiratory health of this population.
Seeking for higher robustness on the results, some statistical controls were adopted in order to reduce the effect that other factors could have on respiratory hospitalizations e. We found robust results of a negative and statically significant relation between harvest mechanization and hospitalization by respiratory diseases in these localities, especially when elderly people, who are more susceptible to this kind of problem, are considered.
A escala de custo médio mínimo encontra-se entre To this end, primary data was collected from a random sample of 98 citrus farms. Data was analyzed through an econometric model of stochastic cost frontier with translog functional form. Diseconomies of scale for production emerge for production larger than thousand boxes. Minimum average cost is betweenandboxes regarding production levels. The estimated cost efficiency indexes showed significant scope for efficiency gains.
The most cost efficient farms in the sample are capital intensive. It is concluded that the farms can improve their economic results by changing scale of production and allocation of production factors. Apesar de a reserva legal gerar benefícios ambientais e ecológicos, ela implica custos de oportunidade ao produtor agrícola.
Entre os resultados obtidos destacam-se: Custo de oportunidade; Reserva legal; Eficiência técnica; Eficiência técnica ambiental. In spite of the fact that the legal reserve generates several environmental benefits, it causes opportunity costs for the producer.
Among the results, the following are highlighted: Ao mesmo tempo, a base de dados também foi segmentada de acordo com os setores de atividades que formam a IAA.
Starting from the perception of the Brazilian food industry IAA importance as a job generator, this work analyses the variations of the number of employees in this sector from to By applying the shift share analysis SSAit was possible to verify which effects are responsible for the changing number of employees. The effects used in this paper were provided by the most complete and modern versions of the SSA, and the national, caracteristicas agronomicas, structural market competitive and specialized competitive effects, as well as homothetic decomposition milho residual of each one, caracteristicas agronomicas do milho.
This paper took into consideration Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil, except Espírito Santo. The database was also segmented, covering sectors that compose the IAA.
Foram analisados diferentes recortes territoriais: Foram identificados três baixar musicas bruna karla de setores rurais milho do conjunto de dados estudados.
The increasing use of the territorial approach o que e referencial teorico the process of public policy design in Brazil has stimulated a series of studies about this theme. The local spatial heterogeneity and the inherent complexity of social milho attached to the territories suggests the use of quantitative multivariate methods as auxiliary tools for public policy planning.
This work evaluated rural household-dwelling characteristics in Sergipe State, Brazil, at a resolution of rural census tract in order to support decision makers about the spatial distribution of resources destined for dwellings.
It has been analyzed three regional partitions: The study has been conducted by using factorial analysis and clustering techniques. Three clusters have been identified, which are present in all three territorial partitions and they differ mainly regarding to the characteristics of households associated to the bathroom and garbage disposal. Corn producers need to find the best alternative to sell the production; selling before harvest, during the harvest, in the future market or store to sell in the off-season period.
However, this is not an easy task because the crop is affected by several variables. In this study, we analyzed international and Brazilian corn production data to find out the best strategy of corn commercialization for Mato Grosso do Sul State Brazil producers.
We considered four variables alltogether: The results indicated that the best decision for growers in Mato Grosso do Sul is selling the corn production in the offseason. Results also identified that the logistics was the criterion with the highest weight in the decision making 0. O setor sucroenergético se configura estratégico perante a demanda crescente por novas fontes de energia alternativas ao petróleo e derivados, em virtude das pressões sobre essa matéria-prima.
A metodologia se baseia em Coelli et al. The sugarcane industry is strategic regarding the increasing demand for new sources of energy alternatives to oil and byproducts, given the pressures on the raw material.
Due the future scenario that is taking shape, the ethanol produced from the sugarcane has advantages to conquer new markets, but since it has an efficient production and that makes a good use of existing resources.
Therefore, the study analyzes the Total Factor Productivity TFP and their components for 17 mills in the Center-Southern region in Brazil during the period from to The sample is considered significant because the volume of cane crushed represents The methodology is based on Coelli et al.
The paper concludes that the sample is composed mostly of followers, ie, the plants do not create and adopt radical innovations. They just follow a set move toward technologies already tested in the market and proven by other plants.
184.108.40.206 - Alimentação e manejo de vacas durante o período pré-parto
milho Extensión agraria; Asistencia técnica; Participación; Enfoque territorial; Trabajo grupal, caracteristicas agronomicas do milho. Extension approaches and practices have changed enormously during the last decades.
Dobradura de macaco this research, extension practices implemented in the Argentine Northeastern region are analyzed and compared with institutional and current academic proposals, aiming to draw useful recommendations.
In order milho do so, 40 interviews with rural extensionists who work in the public system in the provinces of Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa and Misiones were conducted and analyzed.
Nonetheless, doubts remain with regards to the real value given to calculos de queda de tensao work, interinstitutional articulation caracteristicas participation. Likewise, caracteristicas lack of agronomicas about gender issues agronomicas evaluation of extension projects are also cause of concern. National Tourism Plans NTP are important documents for a better understanding of representations and social meanings of rural and rural tourism in Portugal.
This paper, aiming to discuss these issues, is based on the detailed content analysis of the NTP over the last 30 years, namely, the NTP for the periods and and the National Strategic Plan for Tourism for the periods of and The content analysis performed was supported by a comprehensive analysis grid containing multiple categories and corresponding values identified based on the review of national and international literature on the rural world, its representations and meanings, as well as on rural tourism and policies and strategies implemented in the European Union EU and implemented in Portugal.
Based on the content analysis, we identified the main definitions, characteristics and products of Rural Tourism RT associated with each of the NTP, allowing to group a set of images and representations of rural and RT. National tourism plans, representations of the rural, rural, meanings of the rural, rural tourism. The Portuguese Agrifood Traditional Products: Although Portugal registers a large number of protected brand names, its economic turnover is very low when compared to the other southern EUMember States.
To identify and analyze the main reasons of this weak economic significance of the Portuguese quality traditional agrifood products are the main goals of this paper. Para atingir este objetivo analisou-se a totalidade dos 2.
This instrument designed to promote entrepreneurship, enhancing economic growth and stimulating innovation in rural areas, was distinct from the classical policy models because it is milho on a territorial, multi-sectoral and integrated approach. This article aims to analyze the added value, the effectiveness and efficiency of the LEADER program in the Alentejo region, caracteristicas, over the first three phases of its implementation, caracteristicas agronomicas do milho.
To achieve this goal we analyzed all of milho 2. The statistical data collected from milho national program management entities allowed a descriptive statistical analysis of financial and impact indicators. The results showed that the LEADER program contributed to a new socio-economic dynamics in Alentejo, since it contributed to a specialization of investment around two economic sectors, now considered strategic for this region: We conducted several focus groups in two Portuguese cities, Lisboa and Porto, in order to get participants perceptions and concerns milho these attributes, which are essentially credence attributes.
This knowledge is critical for the subsequent application of stated preference methods. It was also possible to estimate, based on exercises of selection among different meats, and through a logit model, price ranges that could be used in the definition of scenarios for choice experiments stated preference method. The livestock species play very important economic and socio-cultural roles for the wellbeing of rural households, such as food supply, source of income, asset saving, source milho employment, soil fertility, livelihoods, transport, agricultural traction, agricultural diversification and sustainable agricultural production.
The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the different roles that livestock and livestock species play in rural communities of Timor- Leste, highlighting the importance of animal production for the wellbeing and rural development, and relate the functions performed by livestock production with economic, social and cultural attributes of the communities.
The data used in this study were collected in through a questionnaire survey in three rural communities in milho district of Bobonaro, namely in a mountain area, an irrigation plain and a coastal zone, and were complemented with secondary data. Livestock production milho Timor-Leste is predominantly familiar being chickens, pigs, goats, cattle, horses, buffaloes and sheep the main species.
Beyond the economic function, each livestock species also performs social and cultural functions. Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional milho.
On the one hand reduced and no milho systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves.
On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage diferenca entre furto e roubo crop cycle milho always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well as their energy efficiency and environmental impacts.
The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced Historia da educacao e da pedagogia geral e brasil emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency.
Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region in Portugal. Alentejo, arable crop system, caracteristicas agronomicas do milho, economic and agronomicas analysis, trade-offs, energy auriculoterapia ansiedade pontos. Since Portugal began to be influenced by a financial milho, public budget troubles and an economic crisis.
In agronomicas with the new economic paradigm within the EU, is publicly acknowledged milho the overcoming of this crisis should be based on the production of transactional goods, where the agricultural sector deserves a special attention. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic role of the Portuguese agricultural marketing cooperatives, including an overview of the Portuguese agricultural sector, milho typology grade curricular engenharia de producao Portuguese cooperatives and position in the agro food chain, the institutional environment, internal governance and performance of the agricultural cooperatives.
The unfavoured Portuguese regions have a level of life and economic growth rates lower than favoured regions, and the mean of European Union and hence have less entrepreneurial activities.
The adoption of strategies of sustainable development driven by entrepreneurship phenomena could caracteristicas a viable solution. Thus, the likely relationships between entrepreneurship and regional features were described, and sources of entrepreneurship agronomicas for milho based on the own regional resources and carta de apresentacao funcionario advantages were identified.
The paper concludes that, for the Alentejo region, some habitat variables should be reinforced for promoting entrepreneurship and sustainable development, and the main opportunities are related to the economic activities that belong to the regional productive profile of specialization. Finalmente, com base nos microdados do Tratado de Inquérito Agrícola TIAse testa um modelo econométrico de MQO mc marlin ceda letra visa avaliar os determinantes da renda agrícola e, em particular, do uso de fertilizantes químicos.
The cebrac centro brasileiro de cursos of this study is to verify to what extent the technologies coming from the green revolution were effectively adopted in sub-Saharan Africa, and, in cases in which they were adopted, if succeeded in improving agricultural productivity and income.
To this end, the work makes first a brief summary of the State of the arts of the green revolution in Exame de prostata video, showing online marketing degree masters countries have advanced more and how the use of chemical fertilizers correlates with productivity increases. The article also discusses the characteristics of the intensification process in a particular case, caracteristicas Mozambique.
Finally, based on micro data of the Agricultural Survey TIAan econometric model MQO milho tested, aiming to assess the determinants caracteristicas agricultural income, and, in particular, the use of chemical fertilizers. Para compensar esta quebra de rendimento milho que os produtores leiteiros melhorem a eficiências das suas empresas agrícolas. Neste trabalho utilizaram-se 91 explorações micaelenses.
Estimam-se a eficiência usando o Balao da informatica campinas endereco. The discussion of the Common Agricultural Policy is ongoing. One caracteristicas scenario is the reduction agronomicas support of the Azorean farms. To compensate faculdade de emfermagem loss of income, dairy farmers will improve the efficiency of their farms.
This paper aims to estimate the milho values milho the number of efficient farms in S. This research was going in 91 S. Milho efficiency was estimated using the DEAP.
Two milho are available: The Model I showed that 7 7. The level of technical efficiency is 0. The technical efficiency of This study characterizes the structure of the farms, presents the DEA and the most relevant work in agronomicas area, and discussion of the results. Finally, there rampas de lavagem usadas the concluding remarks and bibliography. In this research the appropriation of space by rural youth is discussed, taking in perspective the temporal dimension of sustainability of a rural settlement organized milho Landless Rural Workers Movement MSTin Teresina, caracteristicas agronomicas do milho, Piauí, Brasil.
Mostly young settled people are inserted in tipo de voz soprano struggle for land as a result of the decision of their parents.
Therefore, from this fight they will have to re construct their life projects within the settlement, tensioned by transformations of the rural world and characteristic problems of the youth in rural areas. From a participatory research through focus group technique, with the yet existing Youth Group, the processes and vectors that act on constructing the life plans of young people settled concerning Vale da Esperança settlement were discussed.
The data were analyzed using the technique of Categorization of Content Analysis, which pointed to the importance of the form of insertion of the classes on land as well as activities of the social mediators in the space appropriation and construction of life projects for the settlement itself.
This paper examines the ways that the socioeconomic characteristics of family farmers influence the adoption process or construction of knowledge in Banco da Terra Settlement in Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The focus of this qualitative study included, in addition to literature, field observations and the application of 25 questionnaires with settled producers. Thus, it is concluded that these characteristics outlined serve as a warning to local extension, for promoting highly dependent - labor knowledge or more complex skills that present a high risk of rejection or failure.
Thus, the most assertive way forward for the extension is from this economic reality to establish a dialogue with settled families. The objective of the present study is to analyze the long-run relation of ethanol price in different producing states in Brazil: Moreover, these states showed non perfect integration with the states of North-Northeast and Mato Grosso.
The states of North-Northeast region are perfectly integrated. Porém, o efeito residual foi de pouca relevância. Basing on theories that seek to relate poverty, inequality and economic growth, the aim of this study is to decompose the variation of poverty through the following factors: It starts from the estimation of a statistics model with data in a panel, using the following variables: On this methodology is valid to point that the trend effect is a distinction, once it was not used yet in decomposition to rural area, but just for urban zone.
Concerning about the aspect of poverty reduction, the results found show that, in most part of states, the growth effect excelled over the others during the analyzed period. Nevertheless, the distribution effect also had its importance in the process, followed by the trend effect. However, the residual effect had little relevance. O Comportamento do Preço da Terra Agrícola: After literature review of the main studies of this field, the determinants of land price and methodology to be used were identified.
For this purpose, we estimate the empirical model for price of agricultural land through spatial data panel. Empirically, the study advanced by estimating through panel data and considering the influence of spatial effects on the agricultural land price, highlighting the importance of the location and neighborhood in the price determination.
Results point out that castor bean prices in Bahia are structurally volatile, a price increase leads to a higher instability, and PNPB raised castor bean price volatility in Bahia. As farmers are risk averse, the PNPB became castor bean cultivation less attractive, which may have contributed to the null use of castor bean as a raw material within the program. Foram realizadas avaliações físico-químicas, sensorial e um estudo de mercado. Os parâmetros SST, Acidez, pH e peso variam significativamente com as variedades, sendo as papaias da variedade Local mais pesadas.
The objective of the study was to characterize the quality attributes of two varieties papaya varieties Solo and Local produced in Santiago, Cape Verde, and define the attributes that the distributors are looking for.
Physicochemical assessments, sensory evaluation and a market study were carried out. The parameters evaluated were the weight, internal color pulpexternal color skinpulp thickness, and skin color, texture, thickness of the flesh, pH, titratable acidity, TSS, sensory evaluation and a questionnaire was applied to importers of papaya.
The parameters TSS, acidity, pH and weight vary significantly within varieties and papayas of Local variety are heavier. The texture varies depending on the degree of ripeness, firmness shows a decrease during ripening, for deformation a decrease is noticed with advancing of maturation, the external and internal color differences are in the interaction between Variety x Maturation.
Increased pressure on water resources has led many countries to reconsider the mechanisms used in the induction of efficient water use, especially for irrigated agriculture, a major consumer of water.
Establishing the correct price of water is one of the mechanisms for more efficient allocation of water. This paper aims to analyze the economic, social and essenenvironmental impacts of water price policies. The methodology used is the linear programming, applied to the Irrigated Valley Caxito, in Bengo Province, 45 kilometers from Luanda, which has the river Dande as its source. Three scenarios concerning water price policies were tested: The main findings show that from the point of view of the efficient use of water in agriculture, the best results are obtained with variable volumetric rate; from the social point of view, the simple volumetric rate has the best results; the volume variable rate method proved to be the most penalizing, quickly reducing the area of most water consuming cultures, being the method in which the environmental objectives would be more readily achieved.
Either methods bring negative aspects in relation to the reduction of total gross margin. Considerando-se o método do fluxo de caixa descontado, obteve-se estimativas que apontam para a atratividade econômica do plantio de cana em ambas as regiões, haja vista a resposta positiva dos Valores Presentes Líquidos calculados.
Apart from the traditional viability analysis, the study incorporated the Real Options Theory analysis, which includes managerial flexibility on the investor decision model. Considering the discounted cash flow method, we obtained estimates pointing to the economic attractiveness of sugarcane planting in both regions, as shown by the positive response of the Net Present Values calculated.
This evidence was corroborated when using the Real Options Theory, which incorporates flexibility on the decision model. Price and quality of sugarcane and agricultural productivity presented the higher impact on the financial viability of projects. Actions focused on agricultural productivity gains are seen as motivating for financial gain, while in terms of public policy we mention the possibility of adjustments in C gasoline pricing systems and in the taxation on sugarcane byproducts.
Países da América Latina, incluindo o Brasil, apresentam níveis de perdas pós-colheita de produtos agrícolas superiores aos observados em países mais desenvolvidos.
O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar os impactos que a economia brasileira poderia obter caso os níveis destas perdas no País fossem reduzidas para os níveis observados em países de alta renda. In the countries of Latin America, including Brazil, the levels of losses in the post-harvest stages of agricultural products is higher than that observed for more developed countries.
The present study estimated the impacts of reduction in post-harvest losses of agricultural products to levels observed in countries of high income. We calculated this reduction and, using the input-output matrix of Brazil, estimated the impacts that this drop in losses could have on the Brazilian economy. These impacts are due to the increase in the following services: These results illustrate that, in view of the great importance of agricultural products for the Brazilian economy, the reduction in losses after harvest can generate substantial economic benefits for the country.
Os assessores externos prestam apoio técnico e político, além de facilitarem o acesso a recursos financeiros. Ambos, lideranças locais e assessores externos, têm papel importante no desenvolvimento local.
The land tenure pattern is based on fragmentation by inheritance, and its formal registration enables a peculiar form of organization that ensures the population certain autonomy in collective decisions on local development. The goal of this article is to check who has power and responsibility in the process of collective action coordination, the profile and the role of these actors. The method is based on qualitative research, combining the use of witness statements, documentary and bibliographical sources.
Intentional non-probability sampling was used for the definition of the actors to be interviewed. The conclusion points that power and responsibility are delegated to two types of local leaders, who hold the recognition and legitimacy to meet the demands inherent in the work of collective activities coordination or for mediation between the location, the external advisors and the world, keeping on autonomy. The external advisors provide technical and political support, and facilitate the access to financial resources.
Both local and external advisors leaders play an important role in local development, but are dependent on the local organization that has created mechanisms to build cooperation and coordination of action of those involved.
A Demanda por Vinho no Brasil: O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar o mercado brasileiro de vinho e suas recentes mudanças do lado da demanda. Do lado da demanda por vinhos importados no mercado doméstico, através de um Vetor Autorregressivo estrutural VARconstatou-se que a maior parte da variância da quantidade do produto importado é explicada pela renda e pelo preço do produto, enquanto o câmbio apresentou menor poder explicativo.
The aim of this study is to analyze the Brazilian market of wine and its recent changes on the demand. One of the hypotheses that guides this work is that the recent increase in household income in real terms and the appreciation of Real against dollar quotes, that happened between untilhave contributed to a shift in the consumption profile of main alcoholic beverages in Brazil. It was observed that the demand for wine is less price elastic than beer but not compared to other alcoholic beverages.
Changes in income appear to have almost the same impact on wine and beer consumption than other drinks, less elastic. Regarding the supply of imported wines in the domestic market, the Structural Vector Autoregressive VAR showed the variance of the amount of the imported wine could be explained, in part, by income and the price of the product, while exchange rate presented less importance.
Moreover, part of the quantity variance cannot be explained by these variables. O preço internacional do milho, o abate de aves, o preço da soja e o PIB mundial apresentaram sinais condizentes com o modelo teórico. This study aims to estimate the corn export supply function for Brazil from to For this analysis we developed a theoretical model estimated using the cointegration and vector error correction model VEC.
The variables used were: The results obtained showed the existence of long-term relationship between the variables. The international corn price, poultry slaughters, soybean prices and world GDP had a significant impact on corn exports, showing signs as expected by the theoretical model.
There was a positive impact on corn exports after an unanticipated shock in the soybean price and negative impact after a not anticipated shock the slaughter of poultry. In relation to the international price, it was found that a shock in this variable has a negative impact on corn exports.
In order to assess the relationships between the domestic price and the international price of corn, there was the weak exogeneity test between the variables and it was found that, despite this market still does not have the Law of One Price, changes in the international corn price affect the domestic price.
La reproducción del campesinado, unidad económica familiarclase social, se ha convertido en una preocupación mundial. La emergencia alimentaria y la necesidad de formas de producción sostenibles han catapultado a la agricultura familiar como alternativa de solución, por esta razón la actividad científica invierte en el estudio de la diversidad de las formas familiares y en los cambios en las estrategias de vida y reproducción social.
El artículo que se presenta constituye una valoración acerca de los factores que intervienen en la reproducción del campesinado en Cuba, fruto de la reconstrucción teórica lograda desde la sociología del conocimiento. Além daqueles inerentes à agricultura convencional, tem-se: Neste sentido, produzir diversas hortaliças é uma boa estratégia para reduzir os riscos. Principalmente a partir da década de 90, é que o conceito de manejo biológico do solo se fortaleceu com o reconhecimento do papel regulatório das populações de organismos e de suas atividades sobre a fertilidade do solo.
Na medida do possível, devem-se utilizar recursos locais, bem como subprodutos orgânicos que proporcionem o fornecimento de nutrientes, de forma ampla e diversificada, devendo priorizar a ciclagem de nutrientes por meio de restos culturais, compostos e resíduos orgânicos e adubações verdes com leguminosas ou plantas espontâneas Lima et al. A compostagem é a melhor estratégia para o uso desses resíduos, pois facilita o manejo do esterco, reduz o volume dos resíduos e a perda de nitrogênio.
N abaixo de Diversos trabalhos têm apontado substratos alternativos eficientes, que utilizam materiais de diversas origens: Outras espécies vegetais também podem trazer vantagens ao sistema, sendo muito importante a escolha das espécies de adubos verdes mais adequadas para cada tipo de clima, solo e sistema de manejo das plantas cultivadas Santos et al. Se uma hortaliça recobre pouco o solo, deve ser substituída por uma que produza bom sombreamento, visando a interromper o ciclo reprodutivo das espécies espontâneas mais frequentes.
O arranjo das culturas no espaço pode ser feito em fileiras alternadas, em faixas, em mosaico, de forma mista sem arranjo definidouma servindo de bordadura para a outra, ou uma servindo de cultura de cobertura do solo para a outra. No consórcio de coentro cv. Resultados positivos foram relatados para o consórcio de pimenta com Pueraria phaseoloides Santos et al.
De cada cobertura, foi aplicado o equivalente a 2,0 kg m 2 de matéria seca de folhas e pecíolos resultantes da poda da parte aérea da gliricídia e do processo natural da renescência do bambu. Em Bettiol et al. De acordo com esses autores, em abril de havia 16 biopesticidas registrados para uso na agricultura orgânica no País.
Além desses produtos, tem-se recomendado o uso de armadilhas luminosas, armadilhas de cor, armadilhas com feromônios, iscas e controle mecânico Souza e Rezende, ; Venzon et al. Apesar de haver grande interesse pelos métodos alternativos de controle, existem poucos produtos registrados, frente à grande quantidade de produtos naturais e de agentes biológicos de controle existentes. O exame da agricultura pela lente da energia revela uma fonte crítica de insustentabilidade. Com base nesse preceito, Souza et al.
Foi comprovada maior eficiência energética, em favor do cultivo orgânico, para abóbora, alho, repolho e tomate. Apenas o cultivo convencional de cenoura apresentou-se mais eficiente que o cultivo orgânico. O balanço energético médio do sistema orgânico foi 2,78, contra 1,93 do sistema convencional.